Updated: June 6th, 2008
Emotional Intelligence - EQ - is a relatively recent
behavioral model, rising to prominence with Daniel Goleman's 1995
Book called 'Emotional Intelligence'. The early Emotional Intelligence
theory was originally developed during the 1970's and 80's by the
work and writings of psychologists Howard Gardner (Harvard), Peter
Salovey (Yale) and John Mayer (New Hampshire). Emotional Intelligence
is increasingly relevant to organizational development and developing
people, because the EQ principles provide a new way to understand
and assess people's behaviors, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal
skills, and potential. Emotional Intelligence is an important consideration
in human resources planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing
and selection, management development, customer relations and customer
service, and more.
Emotional Intelligence links strongly with concepts
and spirituality: bringing compassion and humanity to work,
and also to 'Multiple
Intelligence' theory which illustrates and measures the range
of capabilities people possess, and the fact that everybody has
The EQ concept argues that IQ, or conventional intelligence,
is too narrow; that there are wider areas of emotional intelligence
that dictate and enable how successful we are. Success requires
more than IQ (Intelligence Quotient), which has tended to be the
traditional measure of intelligence, ignoring essential behavioral
and character elements. We've all met people who are academically
brilliant and yet are socially and inter-personally inept. And we
know that despite possessing a high IQ rating, success does not
emotional intelligence - two aspects
This is the essential premise of EQ: to be successful
requires the effective awareness, control and management of one's
own emotions, and those of other people. EQ embraces two aspects
- Understanding yourself, your goals, intentions,
responses, behavior and all.
- Understanding others, and their feelings.
emotional intelligence - the five domains
Goleman identified the five 'domains' of EQ as:
- Knowing your emotions.
- Managing your own emotions.
- Motivating yourself.
- Recognizing and understanding
other people's emotions.
- Managing relationships, ie.,
managing the emotions of others.
Emotional Intelligence embraces and draws from numerous
other branches of behavioral, emotional and communications theories,
such as NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming), Transactional Analysis,
and empathy. By developing our Emotional Intelligence in these areas
and the five EQ domains we can become more productive and successful
at what we do, and help others to be more productive and successful
The process and outcomes of Emotional Intelligence
development also contain many elements known to reduce stress for
individuals and organizations, by decreasing conflict, improving
relationships and understanding, and increasing stability, continuity
emotional intelligence competence
framework, case studies, examples, tools, tests, information and
related theory references
The following excellent free Emotional Intelligence
materials in pdf file format (Acrobat Reader required to view) are
provided with permission of Daniel Goleman on behalf of the Consortium
for Research on Emotional Intelligence, which is gratefully
Emotional Competence Framework - a generic
EQ competence framework produced by Daniel Goleman and CREI covering
- personal competence - self-awareness, self-regulation,
- social competence - social awareness, social
'Emotional Intelligence: what is it and
why it matters'. An excellent information
paper by Dr Cary Cherniss originally presented at the annual meeting
of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, in
New Orleans, April 2000. This is a detailed history and explanation
of Emotional Intelligence.
Business Case for Emotional Intelligence
- a paper by Dr Cary Cherniss featuring 19 referenced business and
organizational case studies demonstrating how emotional intelligence
contributes to corporate profit performance. The paper is an excellent
tool which trainers, HR professionals and visionaries can use to
help justify focus, development, assessment, etc., of EQ in organizations.
Guidelines for Promoting Emotional Intelligence
in the Workplace - a paper chiefly constructed
by Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman featuring 22 guidelines which
represent the best current knowledge relating to the promotion of
EQ in the workplace, summarized as:
paving the way
- assess the organization's needs
- assessing the individual
- delivering assessments with care
- maximizing learning choice
- encouraging participation
- linking goals and personal values
- adjusting individual expectations
- assessing readiness and motivation for EQ development
doing the work of change
- foster relationships between EQ trainers and
- self-directed change and learning
- setting goals
- breaking goals down into achievable steps
- providing opportunities for practice
- give feedback
- using experiential methods
- build in support
- use models and examples
- encourage insight and self-awareness
encourage transfer and maintenance of change
- encourage application of new learning in jobs
- develop organizational culture that supports
evaluating the change - did it work?
- evaluate individual and organizational effect
When teaching or explaining Emotional Intelligence
it can be helpful to the teacher and learners to look at other concepts
and methodologies, many of which contain EQ elements and examples.
Emotional Intelligence tests/activities/exercises
books - for young people ostensibly, but just as relevant to grown-ups
- provide interesting and useful exercises, examples, theory, etc.,
for presentations and participative experience if you are explaining
EQ or teaching a group. For example '50 Activities For Teaching
Emotional Intelligence' by Dianne Schilling - my copy was published
by Inner choice Publishing - ISBN 1-56499-37-0, if you can find
it. Otherwise look at Amazon and search for 'activities for teaching
There's a very strong link between EQ and TA (Transactional
Analysis). To understand and explain EQ you can refer to the
'adult' aspect of the TA model (for example, we are less emotional
intelligent/mature when slipping into negative child or parent modes).
In this way we can see that one's strength in EQ is certainly linked
to personal experience, especially formative years.
Programming) is very relevant to EQ.
business and socially responsible leadership are strongly connected
So is the concept of love
and spirituality in organizations. Compassion and humanity are
fundamental life-forces; our Emotional Intelligence enables us to
appreciate and develop these vital connections between self, others,
purpose, meaning, existence, life and the world as a whole, and
to help others do the same.
People with strong EQ have less emotional 'baggage',
and conversely people with low EQ tend to have personal unresolved
issues which either act as triggers (see Freud/Penfield
TA roots explanation) or are constants in personality make-up.
Carter-Scott's 'If Life Is Game' and Don
Miguel Ruiz's The Four Agreements' also provide excellent additional
EQ reference perspectives.
and active interpretive listening is also very relevant to EQ.
and Luft's Johari Window and associated exercises on the free
team building games section also help explain another perspective.
That is, as a rule, the higher a person's EQ, the less insecurity
is likely to be present, and the more openness will be tolerated.
High EQ = low insecurity = more openness.
A person's preparedness to expose their feelings,
vulnerabilities, thoughts, etc., is a feature of EQ. Again the converse
applies. Johari illustrates this very well (see the Johari
Window diagram pdf also).
is also relevant - self-actualisers naturally have stronger EQ.
People struggling to meet lower order needs - and arguably even
middle order needs such as esteem needs - tend to have lower EQ
than self-actualisers. The original 5 stage Hierarchy of Needs explains
that all needs other than self-actualisation are deficiency drivers,
which suggest, in other words, some EQ development potential or
There is a strong thread of EQ running through Stephen
Covey's 7 Habits.
Other theories related to Emotional Intelligence:
and Spirituality - how to bring compassion and humanity to work
and Social Responsibility
Thinking Styles and Assessment Model
and the many other materials on the main
businessballs site if you are not already there
The use of this
material is free provided copyright (see below) is acknowledged
and reference or link is made to the http://www.businessballs.com
web site. This material may not be sold, or published in any form.
Disclaimer: Reliance on information, material, advice, or other
linked or recommended resources, received from Alan Chapman, shall
be at your sole risk, and Alan Chapman assumes no responsibility
for any errors, omissions, or damages arising. Users of this web
site are encouraged to confirm information received with other sources,
and to seek local qualified advice if embarking on any actions that
could carry personal or organizational liabilities. Managing people
and relationships are sensitive activities; the free material and
advice available via this web site do not provide all necessary
safeguards and checks. Please retain this notice on all copies.
© alan chapman
2000-2008, based on Daniel Goleman's EQ concept.